This is the view that led Theodore Roosevelt to assert that submitting to America's will was "the prerequisite condition to the moral and material advance of the people who dwell in the darker corners of the earth." It convinced Woodrow Wilson that the US needed to dominate Latin Americans so it could "teach them to elect good men." It propelled Dwight Eisenhower to overthrow democratic governments in Iran and Guatemala, ultimately plunging both countries into brutal dictatorship. More recently, it pulled Jimmy Carter into Afghanistan and George W Bush into Iraq, with devastating consequences for American power and security. — Stephen Kinzer